Antimicrobial Studies of Blue Light on Pathogenic Oral Bacteria

banner
JPIS Phototoxic effect of blue light on the planktonic and biofilm state of anaerobic periodontal pathogens
By Hyun-Hwa Song, Jae-Kwan Lee, Heung-Sik Um, Beom-Seok Chang, Si-Young Lee, Min-Ku Lee
+
-
WAVELENGTH
400-520nm
ENERGY
500 mW/cm²
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
Blue light exposure killed 99.1% of F. nucleatum within 60 seconds, and 100% of Porphyromonas gingivalis within 15 seconds.
Genetic and Physiological Effects of Noncoherent Visible Light Combined with Hydrogen Peroxide on Streptococcus mutans in Biofilm.
By Doron Steinberg,1, * Daniel Moreinos,1,2 John Featherstone,3 Moshe Shemesh,1 and Osnat Feuerstein2.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
400-500 NM
ENERGY
34-68 J/cm²
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
A combination of low hydrogen peroxide concentration (3 mM) with light exposure (30 and 60 s) reduced bacterial growth by 1.5 and 2.3 logs, respectively, compared with that of the control.
Inactivation of Bacterial Pathogens following Exposure to Light from a 405-Nanometer Light-Emitting Diode Array.
By Michelle Maclean,* Scott J. MacGregor, John G. Anderson, and Gerry Woolsey.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
405 nm
ENERGY
10 mW/cm²
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
After exposure of 60-90 mins, CFU counts of the Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Clostridium strains reduced by 5-log10.
The Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy in the Treatment of Peri-Implantitis.
By Umberto Romeo, Gianna Maria Nardi, Fabrizio Libotte, Silvia Sabatini, Gaspare Palaia, and Felice Roberto Grassi.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
670 nm
ENERGY
75 mW/cm²
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VIVO
RESULTS
Control group received conventional periodontal therapy, while test group received photodynamic therapy in addition to it. Test group showed a 70% reduction in the plaque index values and a 60% reduction in pocket depth values compared to the baseline.
Phototargeting Oral Black-Pigmented Bacteria.
By Nikolaos S. Soukos,1, * Sovanda Som,1 Abraham D. Abernethy,1 Karriann Ruggiero,1 Joshua Dunham,1, Chul Lee,2 Apostolos G. Doukas,3 and J. Max Goodson4.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
380-520 nm
ENERGY
4.2 and 21 J/cm²
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VIVO
RESULTS
Prevotella intermedia, P. nigrescens, P. melaninogenica, and P. gingivalis growth decreased by 2 and 3 times after irradiation at energy fluences of 4.2 and 21 J/cm², respectively.
A New Proof of Concept in Bacterial Reduction: Antimicrobial Action of Violet-Blue Light (405 nm) in Ex Vivo Stored Plasma
By Michelle Maclean, John G. Anderson, Scott J. MacGregor, Tracy White, and Chintamani D. Atreya.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
405 nm
ENERGY
144 J/cm²
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
EX VIVO
RESULTS
99.9% reduction of low density bacterial populations was achieved.
Blue light for infectious diseases: Propionibacterium acnes, Helicobacter pylori, and beyond?
By Tianhong Dai, Asheesh Gupta, Clinton K. Murray, Mark S. Vrahas, George P. Tegos, and Michael R. Hamblin*.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
407-420 nm
ENERGY
90 mW/cm²
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
After bacterial suspensions were exposed to blue light for 60 mins at a distance of 25 cm, P. acnes viability was decreased by 15.7% and 24.4%, respectively, immediately and at 60 mins after the irradiation.
The effect of Light Emitting Diode electric toothbrush on gingivitis: a randomized controlled trial.
By Sung-Jo Lee*.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
670 nm
ENERGY
Not found
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VIVO
RESULTS
Lower GI (gingival index) values detected at 2 weeks and 4 weeks later with LED electronic toothbrush than without LED. Lower PI (plaque index) values detected at 4 weeks later with LED electronic toothbrush than without LED.
The effect of blue light on periodontal biofilm growth in vitro.
By Carla R. Fontana & Xiaoqing Song & Angeliki Polymeri & J. Max Goodson & Xiaoshan Wang & Nikolaos S. Soukos.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
455 nm
ENERGY
12 J/cm²
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
Following phototherapy, the mean survival fractions were reduced by 28.5 and 48.2% in plaque suspensions and biofilms, respectively.
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for inactivation of biofilms formed by oral key pathogens.
By Fabian Cieplik *, Laura Tabenski, Wolfgang Buchalla and Tim Maisch.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
450 nm
ENERGY
5.7 J/cm²
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
Biofilms were cultured for 7 days, exposed to the curcumin-solution for 5 mins and irradiated for 5 mins with blue light. CFU (unit of concentration of microorganisms in a test sample) reduced by more than 3 log10 steps in the biofilms.
Hill Top Research Report for Assessment of Rapid Germicidal (Time Kill) Activity for UltraBlu Toothbrush
+
-
WAVELENGTH
Not found
ENERGY
Not found
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
When compared to an untreated control, the test article, UltraBlu™ Toothbrush (engineering prototype) showed a 99.39% reduction (2.22 logw) in numbers of the test organism P. gingivalis after 10 - 2 minute exposures over 29 minutes.
Indigo-Clean White Paper: #1: Bactericidal Performance Testing of Indigo-Clean Upon Bacterial Species
By Clifford J. Yahnke, Director, Clinical Affairs, Kenall Manufacturing, 10200 W. 55th St. Kenosha, WI 53144.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
405 nm
ENERGY
0.525 mW/cm2
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
Purple light exposure killed 100% of bacteria: Enterobacter Aerogenes, Staphylococcuss Aureus, Klebsiella Pneumonia, on agar surfaces after 24 hours.
Specific-wavelength visible light irradiation inhibits bacterial growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis
By M. Fukui, M. Yoshioka, K. Satomura, H. Nakanishi, and M. Nagayama.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
405 nm
ENERGY
12 J/cm2
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
56.5% of control P. gingivalis bacteria were viable, or living, after 240 seconds of blue light exposure, as specified in previous columns.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy: Susceptibility of Streptococcus mutans biofilms to photodynamic therapy: an in vitro study
By Iriana Carla Junqueira Zanin, Reginaldo Bruno Goncalves, Aldo Brugnera Junior, Christopher Keith Hope and Jonathan Pratten.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
HeNe gas laser: 632.8 nm; LED: 638.8 nm
ENERGY
49-294 J/cm2
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
Significant decreases in the viability of S. mutans biofilms were only observed when biofilms were exposed to both TBO and light, when reductions in viability of up to 99.99% were observed with both light sources.
Phototoxic Effect of Visible Light on Porphyrornonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum: An In Vitro Study
By Osnat Feuerstein*, Nir Persman and Ervin I. Weiss.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
400-500 nm
ENERGY
16-62 J/cm2
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
Only 10% of the original P. gingivalis bacteria in suspension survived 3 mins of exposure to a blue light LED.
ResearchGate: Zinc enhances the phototoxic effect of blue light against malodour-producing bacteria in an experimental oral biofilm
By Nir Sterer, Uziel Jeffet, David Kohavi, Aurel Dadoun, and Ronit Bar-Ness Greenstein.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
Blue light: 400-500 nm
ENERGY
82 J/cm2
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
The addition of both zinc and erythrosine B to experimental biofilms exposed to high-intensity blue light for 60 sec's caused a 54% reduction in VSC (volatile sulfide compound)-related flourescence compared with the no-addition control.
PLOS: Effect of Twice-Daily Blue Light Treatment on Matrix-Rich Biofilm Development
By Denise Lins de Sousa, Ramille Araújo Lima, Iriana Carla Zanin, Marlise I. Klein, Malvin N. Janal, Simone Duarte.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
420 nm
ENERGY
72 J/cm2
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
Twice-daily blue light exposure produced intermediate levels of S. mutans bio film weight; less than the negative control group treated with 0.89% NaCl (p< 0.05), but more than the positive control group treated with CHX (p< 0.05). CFU counts were reduced only in the positive control group treated with CHX (p< 0.05).
Efficiency of an LED toothbrush on a Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm on a sandblasted and acid-etched titanium surface: an in vitro study
By Hae Lee, Yong-Gun Kim, Heung-Sik Um, Beom-Seok Chang, Si Young Lee, Jae-Kwan Lee.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
465 nm
ENERGY
64 mW
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
In BLE disks, which were placed into erythrosine and then brushed with an LED toothbrush, the number of viable bacteria was significantly lower than that in disks with less treatment.
Phototargeting human periodontal pathogens in vivo
By Nikolaos S. Soukos, Jacyn Stultz, Abraham D. Abernethy & J. Max Goodson.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
455 nm
ENERGY
70 mW/cm2
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VIVO
RESULTS
Light with a power density of 70 mW/cm2 was applied to the buccal surfaces of premolar and molar teeth on one side of the mouth twice daily for 2 min over a period of 4 days. The proportions of black-pigmented species Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia were significantly reduced on the exposed side from their original proportions by 25 and 56 %, respectively, while no change was observed to the unexposed side.
Application of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in periodontal and peri-implant diseases
By ARISTEO A. TAKASAKI , AKIRA AOKI , KOJI MIZUTANI , FRANK SCHWARZ, ANTON SCULEAN, CHEN - YING WANG , GEENA KOSHY , GEORGE ROMANOS , ISAO ISHIKAWA & YUICHI IZUMI.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
Blue argon lasers: 488–514 nm
ENERGY
0.58 mW
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
P.gingivalis was the most sensitive to argon laser irradiation. For elimination of BPB (black-pigmented bacteria), oxygen was required during laser irradiation. Non-BPB were much less sensitive to irradiation than BPB. The biofilms of P.gingivalis, Prevotella nigrescens and Prevotella melaninogenica were susceptible to argon laser without the addition of an exogenous photosensitizer.
Adjunctive dental therapy via tooth plaque reduction and gingivitis treatment by blue light-emitting diodes tooth brushing
By Elina A Genina, Andrey V. Belikov, Alexey N. Bashkatov, Valery Victorovich Tuchin, and Vladimir A. Titorenko.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
405-420 nm
ENERGY
2 mW/cm2
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VIVO
RESULTS
In addition to partial mechanical removal of bacteria, photodynamic action suppresses them up to 97.5%. In the pilot clinical studies, subjects with mild to moderate gingivitis have been randomly divided into two groups: a treatment group that used the B-LETBs (blue light-emitting toothbrushes) and a control group that used standard toothbrushes. A significant improvement of all dental indices in comparison with the baseline (by 59%, 66%, and 82% for plaque, gingival bleeding, and inflammation, respectively) has been found.
Effects of photodynamic therapy with blue light and curcumin as mouth rinse for oral disinfection: a randomized controlled trial
By Diego Portes Vieira Leite, Fernanda Rossi Paolillo, Thiago Nogueira Parmesano, Carla Raquel Fontana, & Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
455±30 nm
ENERGY
Intensity: 600 mW/cm2, Fluence: 200 J/cm2
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VIVO
RESULTS
Twenty-seven adults were randomly divided into three groups: (1) the PDT group, which was treated with the drug, curcumin, and blue light (n=9); (2) the light group, which was treated only with the blue light, and no drug (n=9) and; (3) the curcumin group, which was treated only with the drug, curcumin, and no light (n=9). The PDT group showed significant difference in microbial reduction (p < 0.05) compared with both the light and curcumin groups until 2 h post-treatment. The new blue LED device for PDT using curcumin may be used for reduction of salivary microorganisms, leading to overall disinfection of the mouth (e.g., mucosa, tongue, and saliva), but new protocols should be explored.
Effect of red dyes on blue light phototoxicity against VSC producing bacteria in an experimental oral biofilm
By U. Jeffet, R. Nasrallah, N. Sterer.
+
-
WAVELENGTH
Blue light: 400-500 nm
ENERGY
Fluences of 41, 82, and 164 J cm−2
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
Results showed that the exposure of experimental oral biofilm to blue light in the presence of rose bengal caused an increased reduction in VSC (volatile sulfide compounds) and malodour production concomitant with an increase in ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. These results suggest that rose bengal might be effective as a blue light photosensitizer against VSC producing bacteria.