Red Light Studies

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Low-Level Laser Impact Mechanism on Inflammation
Sobouti F, Khatami M, Heydari M, Barati M. The role of low-level laser in periodontal surgeries. Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences. 2015 ;6(2):45-50.
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WAVELENGTH
670mn
ENERGY
1j/cm4
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
Low-level lasers have played crucial and colorful roles in performing periodontal surgeries. Their anti-inflammatory and painless effects have been variously reported in in-vitro studies. Low-level lasers with wavelength of 670nm along with typical periodontal treatment result in betterment of treatment outcomes, as well as stability in treatment time.
Low-Level Laser Impact Mechanism on Repair
Sobouti F, Khatami M, Heydari M, Barati M. The role of low-level laser in periodontal surgeries. Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences. 2015 ;6(2):45-50.
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WAVELENGTH
660mn
ENERGY
1j/cm4
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
There is clear evidence proving that 820nm, 940nm, and 660nm lasers can stimulate mast cell degranulation and thus the result of the release of pre-inflammatory TNF-α factor may stimulate the diffusion of leucocytes in the tissue.
Low-Level Laser and Gingivectomy
Sobouti F, Khatami M, Heydari M, Barati M. The role of low-level laser in periodontal surgeries. Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences. 2015 ;6(2):45-50.
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WAVELENGTH
685nm
ENERGY
50mW
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
It was concluded that the application of low-level laser would result into an increased epithelialization and healing in wound repair following gingivectomy and gingivoplasty.
Effect of 660 nm Light-Emitting Diode on the Wound Healing in Fibroblast-Like Cell Lines
Myung-Sun Kim,1 Yong-Ick Cho,2 Min-Suk Kook,3 Sang-Chul Jung,4 Young-Hyun Hwang,5 and Byung-Hoon Kim5
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WAVELENGTH
660nm
ENERGY
8.5mW/cm2
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VIVO
RESULTS
Exposure to the 660 nm red LED resulted in an increase in cell proliferation and migration compared to the control, indicating its potential use as a phototherapeutic agent.
Clinical and experimental applications of NIR-LED photobiomodulation
Kristina D Desmet 1, David A Paz, Jesse J Corry, Janis T Eells, Margaret T T Wong-Riley, Michele M Henry, Ellen V Buchmann, Mary P Connelly, Julia V Dovi, Huan Ling Liang, Diane S Henshel, Ronnie L Yeager, Deborah S Millsap, Jinhwan Lim, Lisa J Gould, Rina Das, Marti Jett, Brian D Hodgson, David Margolis, Harry T Whelan
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WAVELENGTH
ENERGY
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VIVO
RESULTS
NIR-LED light represents a novel, noninvasive, therapeutic intervention for the treatment of numerous diseases linked to mitochondrial dysfunction.
Effect of NASA light-emitting diode irradiation on wound healing
H T Whelan 1, R L Smits Jr, E V Buchman, N T Whelan, S G Turner, D A Margolis, V Cevenini, H Stinson, R Ignatius, T Martin, J Cwiklinski, A F Philippi, W R Graf, B Hodgson, L Gould, M Kane, G Chen, J Caviness
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WAVELENGTH
ENERGY
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
LED produced improvement of greater than 40% in musculoskeletal training injuries in Navy SEAL team members, and decreased wound healing time in crew members aboard a U.S. Naval submarine. LED produced a 47% reduction in pain of children suffering from oral mucositis.
Effect of 660nm low power laser on pain and healing in palatal donor sites a randomized controlled clinical trial
Neda Moslemi, Mohadeseh Heidari, Reza Fekrazad, Hanieh Nokhbatolfoghahaie, Siamak Yaghobee, Ahmadreza Shamshiri, Mozhgan Paknejad 
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WAVELENGTH
660 nm
ENERGY
200mW
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VIVO
RESULTS
The low power laser can promote palatal wound healing during the second and third week after free gingival graft procedures.
Treatment of dentin hypersensitivity with a low-level laser-emitting toothbrush: double-blind randomised clinical trial of efficacy and safety
Y Ko 1, J Park, C Kim, J Park, S H Baek, Y A Kook
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WAVELENGTH
635nm
ENERGY
6 mW
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VIVO
RESULTS
It was concluded that the use of the low-level laser emitting toothbrush is a safe and effective treatment option for the management of DH.
Red light and oral health light therapy at specific wavelengths reduces oral bacteria counts and biofilms.
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WAVELENGTH
ENERGY
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
Red and near infrared light are thought to act primarily on the mitochondria of cells, leading to greater energy (ATP) production. Any cell that has mitochondria will, in theory, see some benefit from appropriate light therapy. Various wavelengths are shown to be effective, including 630nm, 685nm, 810nm, 830nm, etc. Several studies compare lasers to LEDs, which show equal (and in some cases superior) results for oral health. LEDs are much cheaper, being affordable for at-home use.
Potential Novel Strategies for the Treatment of Dental Pulp-Derived Pain: Pharmacological Approaches and Beyond
Christina M. A. P. Schuh, 1 , † Bruna Benso, 2 , 3 , † and Sebastian Aguayo 2 , *
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WAVELENGTH
ENERGY
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
Regarding dental pain management, LLLT has been reported to reduce pain in several situations such as postoperatively after root canal retreatment (Arslan et al., 2017) or in cases of dentinal hypersensitivity (Gerschman et al., 1994; Orhan et al., 2011). However, several studies also demonstrate a regenerative effect of LLLT. In an in vitro tooth-slice model, LLLT increased odontogenic and angiogenic gene expression (El Nawam et al., 2019). Kim et al. (2018) also reported increased dentinogenic differentiation of DPSC in vitro using pulsing LLLT, proposing high production of reactive oxygen species and activation of the TGF-β1 signalling pathway as potential mechanisms. 
Evaluation of the Effects of 660-nm and 810-nm Low-Level Diode Lasers on the Treatment of Dentin Hypersensitivity
Narges Naghsh 1, Mahdi Kachuie 2, Marzie Kachuie 3, Reza Birang 4
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WAVELENGTH
660nm
ENERGY
30 mW
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VIVO
RESULTS
The use of 660-nm and 810-nm diode lasers with the power of 30 and 100 mW respectively for 120 seconds was effective in reducing pain in patients with dentin hypersensitivity. 
Is light-emitting diode phototherapy (LED-LLLT) really effective?
Won-Serk Kim1 and R Glen Calderhead2
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WAVELENGTH
ENERGY
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
LED phototherapy has now been well-proven to work, and is reported to be effective in a large variety of clinical indications such as pain attenuation, wound healing, skin rejuvenation, some viral diseases, allergic rhinitis, other allergy-related conditions and so on.
Developments in low level light therapy (LLLT) for dentistry
James D Carroll 1, Michael R Milward 2, Paul R Cooper 2, Mohammed Hadis 3, William M Palin 4
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WAVELENGTH
405 nm
ENERGY
12 J/cm2
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
The potential benefits of LLLT that have been demonstrated in many healthcare fields and include improved healing, reduced inflammation and pain control, which suggest considerable potential for its use in oral tissues.
Use of low level laser therapy for oral lichen planus: report of two cases
O Mahdavi 1, N Boostani 2, Hh Jajarm 3, F Falaki 3, A Tabesh 4
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WAVELENGTH
630nm
ENERGY
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VIVO
RESULTS
Severity of lesions and pain were reduced after treatment. Low Level Laser Therapy was an effective treatment with no side effects and it may be considered as an alternative therapy for erosive/ulcerative oral lichen planus.
Light-emitting Diodes A Brief Review and Clinical Experience
Daniel R. Opel, MD,a Erika Hagstrom, MD, MA,b Aaron K. Pace, MD,a Krisanne Sisto, MD,a Stefanie A. Hirano-Ali, MD,c Shraddha Desai, MD,a and James Swan, MDcorresponding authora
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WAVELENGTH
670nm 
ENERGY
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VIVO
RESULTS
Red LEDs have the deepest tissue penetration of the visible wavelengths and are therefore used to target dermal structures, such as adnexa and fibroblasts.13 Red LEDs have been studied for a wide variety of uses, including wound healing, photodamage, the treatment of NMSCs, precancers, warts, and the prevention of oral mucositis in cancer patients.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the photobiomodulation in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity after basic therapy. A randomized clinical trial
Cristina García-Delaney 1, Daniel Abad-Sánchez 2, Josep Arnabat-Domínguez 3, Eduard Valmaseda-Castellón 4, Cosme Gay-Escoda 5
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WAVELENGTH
660nm
ENERGY
200mW
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VIVO
RESULTS
The laser treatment parameters for each tooth were 660nm, 200mW, CW, illuminated area 1.15cm2, 173mW/cm2, 60 seconds, 12 J, 10.4J/cm2. There was significant difference (p<0.01) in discomfort to thermal and mechanical stimulation between the control and diode laser treatment sites at all evaluation periods. The level of discomfort decreased immediately following diode laser therapy, and continued to demonstrate a decrease for the duration of the study. All teeth remained vital after laser treatment, without adverse reactions or complications.
Noninvasive red and near-infrared wavelength-induced photobiomodulation: promoting impaired cutaneous wound healing
Anju Yadav 1, Asheesh Gupta 1
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WAVELENGTH
630-680nm
ENERGY
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VIVO
RESULTS
Near-infrared (800-830 nm) was found to be the most effective and widely studied wavelength range followed by red (630-680 nm) and 904 nm superpulsed light exhibiting beneficial photobiomodulatory effects on impaired dermal wound healing.
Efficacy of the LED Red Light Therapy in the Treatment of Temporomandibular Disorders: Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial
Ahmed Fadhel Al-Quisi,1,2 Auday M. Al-Anee,1,3 Hassanien A. AL-jumaily,1,3 Eman F. Bahr,4 and Dina A. Finjan4
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WAVELENGTH
660nm
ENERGY
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VIVO
RESULTS
This study showed that red LED therapy could be useful in improving patient’s symptoms regarding pain, clicking, and number of tender muscles. In addition, this study showed the importance of the psychological part of treatment of those patients.
Comparative clinical study of light analgesic effect on temporomandibular disorder (TMD) using red and infrared led therapy
Vitor Hugo Panhoca, Rosane de Fatima Zanirato Lizarelli, Silvia Cristina Nunez, Renata Campi de Andrade Pizzo, Clovis Grecco, Fernanda Rossi Paolillo & Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato 
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WAVELENGTH
660nm 
ENERGY
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VIVO
RESULTS
There was a significant reduction of pain and increase of the maximum oral aperture for all groups. The current study showed that red and infrared LED therapy can be useful in improving outcomes related to pain relief and orofacial function for TMD patients. We conclude that LED devices constitute an attractive alternative for LLLT.
Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy suppresses dental plaque formation in healthy adults: a randomized controlled clinical trial
Akiko Ichinose-Tsuno, Akira Aoki,corresponding author Yasuo Takeuchi, Teruo Kirikae, Takuro Shimbo, Masaichi-Chang-il Lee, Fumihiko Yoshino, Yutaka Maruoka, Toshiyuki Itoh, Isao Ishikawa, and Yuichi Izumi
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WAVELENGTH
ENERGY
IN VITRO / IN VIVO / EX VIVO
IN VITRO
RESULTS
A randomized controlled trial demonstrated that aPDT with 1000 μg/ml TBO and red LED irradiation significantly suppressed dental plaque formation without harming teeth or the surrounding tissues